Vedic Maths: Base and Complement

Base and Complement are very important in Vedic Mathematics and form the basis of many calculations.

Base:

As explained above we work in a base 10 number system. In order to ease our calculations we can take any number ending with ‘0’ i.e. any multiple of 10 as our base.

COMPLEMENT

The Complement of a number is the difference between that number and the next higher power of 10.

10’s complement:

This includes all 1 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 10.

The complement of 6 is 4.
The complement of 7 is 3.

100’s complement:

This includes all 2 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 100.

The complement of 55 is 45.
The complement of 89 is 11.

Finding a complement of a number:

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Class 3 NSO : Soil types

What is soil

Soil is formed by erosion that is breaking up of rocks , by the action of sun, wind and rain. It forms at the surface of land and  is the “skin of the earth.” Soil is capable of supporting plant life and is vital to life on earth.

Soil contains a lot of different things;  a few essential ingredients are listed below:

Sediment Every soil contains some mixture of sediments.  The three main sediments are sand, silt, and clay. The type of sediments  determines a soil’s typeIdeal soils (for farming) are a mixture of the three. 

Organic Matter – Soil contains a lot of partially decomposed organisms which is called organic matter. Microbes in the soil break it down to make important nutrients. Most organic matter comes from plants. This is also called Humus and is dark brown or black in color.

Minerals – There are tons of different minerals in the soil. They’re used by plants for growth. When plants die, their minerals return to the Earth.

Types of soil and properties

 

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Class 3 IEO : papers

Class 3 IEO papers

ieo-nso-imo-nco

ieo-imo-nco-nso

ieo-nco-nso-imo

ieo-nso-imo-nco

class3ieo_1

class3ieo_2a

class3ieo_2

class3ieo_3

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Grade 3 English (IEO) : Adjectives comparison

 Comparative & Superlative with -er/-est

We use -er / -est with the following adjectives:

One-syllable adjectives

Adjective Compariative Superlative
cold colder coldest
cool cooler coolest
great greater greatest
hard harder hardest
high higher highest
low lower lowest
neat neater neatest
new newer newest
short shorter shortest
small smaller smallest
thick thicker thickest
weak weaker weakest

Two-syllable adjectives with the following endings:

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Grade 3 Maths (IMO) : Multiplication Strategies

A quick look at the grade 2 lesson on introduction to multiplication

Taming the tables – Tips to introduce multiplication

While multiplying always remember :

An even number  x an even number = an even number

An odd number x an even number = an even number

An odd number x an odd number = an odd number

Distributive property of multiplication

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Grade 3 Science(NSO) : Human body part 2

We have already covered Skeletal, immune, cardiovascular, muscular and integumentary system in part 1.

Grade 3 Science (NSO) : Human body part 1

Lymphatic system :

It is responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues. It absorbs and transports fatty acids and fats as chyle from the digestive system. It transports white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones.

-picks up fluids leaked from the capillaries
-supports immune systems: houses white blood cells
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Grade 3 Science (NSO) : Human body part 1

A look at the grade 2 lessons

Grade 2 Science (NSO): Human Body

Human beings: Parts of the body

Human beings : Sense organs

Our body is made up of different organs and organ systems. There are in all 12 systems in our body

Grade 3 Science (NSO) : Food part 3 – Preservation of food

Food Decay and Preservation

Bacteria and fungi are the main groups of  decomposer organisms. Food decay is also known as food spoilage.

Bacteria and fungi need Food , Warmth and Moisture to grow.

There are several ways to stop or slow down the decay of foods. This is known as Food Preservation.

 

Food preservation methods

 Freezing

Bacteria cannot reproduce at low temperatures.

Bacteria and fungi need warmth to grow. In low temperatures they stop growing.

Following is the list of food preserved by freezing;

  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Fresh foods
  • Cooked foods

Drying

Removing water prevents the microorganisms from growing, or digesting the food.

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Grade 3 Science (NSO) : Food Part 1 – Food Types

A look at the grade 2 lesson

Grade 2 Science(NSO) : Food

Food can be divided into three types

Energy giving food

Give us energy to work. They contain carbohydrate and fats.

Carbohydrates

They are found in foods like rice, pasta, cassava, yam etc. when starchy foods are eaten and digested, simple sugars like glucose are obtained. It is this glucose that the body uses for energy.

There are two major types of carbohydrates:

1. Simple carbohydrates (Sugar)

  • Fruits
  • Milk
  • White sugar you would find in a sugar bowl
  • Chocolates

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Grade 3 Science (NSO) : Food Part 2 – Methods of Cooking

Cooking of food

Cooking improves the flavor of food and also makes the food easier to chew and more digestible. Micro oirganisms present in the food are killed during cooking which makes the food safer to consume. Various methods of cooking are listed below :

Boiling

Involves cooking the food at the boiling temperature of water ie 100 degree centigrade.

Example : Eggs , potatoes etc

Advantages :

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