Vedic Maths: Base and Complement

Base and Complement are very important in Vedic Mathematics and form the basis of many calculations.


As explained above we work in a base 10 number system. In order to ease our calculations we can take any number ending with ‘0’ i.e. any multiple of 10 as our base.


The Complement of a number is the difference between that number and the next higher power of 10.

10’s complement:

This includes all 1 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 10.

The complement of 6 is 4.
The complement of 7 is 3.

100’s complement:

This includes all 2 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 100.

The complement of 55 is 45.
The complement of 89 is 11.

Finding a complement of a number:

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Grade 3 Maths (imo): Fractions


Some Basic Terms and Rules of Fractions

  • The numbers in a fraction are called the numerator, on the top, and the denominator, on the bottom. numerator/denominator
  • Proper fractions have a numerator smaller than the denominator.
    Examples include 1/23/4 and 7/8.
  • Improper fractions have a numerator larger than the denominator.
    Examples include 5/43/2 and 101/7.

fraction types

Comparing Fractions

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IMO for Class 3 : Syllabus

Syllabus for Grade 3 

Number sense

  • Comparing numbers
  • Abacus and place value
  • Word problems

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Class 3 IMO : Papers

Grade 3 IMO papers






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Class 3 NSO : papers

Grade 3 NSO papers








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Class 3 IEO : papers

Class 3 IEO papers









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Grade 3 English (IEO) : Adjectives comparison

 Comparative & Superlative with -er/-est

We use -er / -est with the following adjectives:

One-syllable adjectives

Adjective Compariative Superlative
cold colder coldest
cool cooler coolest
great greater greatest
hard harder hardest
high higher highest
low lower lowest
neat neater neatest
new newer newest
short shorter shortest
small smaller smallest
thick thicker thickest
weak weaker weakest

Two-syllable adjectives with the following endings:

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Grade 3 Maths (IMO) : Division

Let’s talk about what division really is — it is repeated subtraction; much the way multiplication is repeated addition.

Let’s say I have the basic problem 16 ÷  4.  I could start with 16 and then subtract 4, subtract another 4, another 4, and another 4 until I run out and reach zero.  I would have to do this 4 times. If I had 16 cookies that I wanted to share equally among 4 friends, I could do the “one for you, one for you, one for you, and one for you” process and still end up with 4 cookies for each.

But what about 375 ÷ 50? If I don’t know how to divide by double digit numbers, the repeated subtraction process might actually be a good choice . . . at least showing some number sense to know that 375 divided by 50 means “How many 50’s in 375?” I know if I subtract 50 six times, I still have 75 left. I can subtract another 50 and I have 25 left over. So 375 ÷ 50 = 7 with a remainder of 25.

Dividing using the distributive law

Division Possible Split Calculation Answer
69 ÷ 3 60 + 9 (60 ÷ 3) = 20

(9 ÷ 3)  = 3

20 + 3 = 23
391 ÷ 3 390 + 1  (390 ÷ 3) = 130

(1 ÷ 3) = cannot be divided

130 with Remainder 1

 Long Division

Before a child is ready to learn long division, he/she has to know: Continue reading

Grade 3 Maths (IMO) : Number sense

Place value and Face value

Face value of a digit  is the digit itself whereas Place value can be termed as the location of the digit in the numeral.


The value of a place in the place value chart is 10 times the value of the place just to its right.

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Grade 3 Maths (IMO) : Multiplication Strategies

A quick look at the grade 2 lesson on introduction to multiplication

Taming the tables – Tips to introduce multiplication

While multiplying always remember :

An even number  x an even number = an even number

An odd number x an even number = an even number

An odd number x an odd number = an odd number

Distributive property of multiplication

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