Base and Complement are very important in Vedic Mathematics and form the basis of many calculations.
As explained above we work in a base 10 number system. In order to ease our calculations we can take any number ending with ‘0’ i.e. any multiple of 10 as our base.
The Complement of a number is the difference between that number and the next higher power of 10.
This includes all 1 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 10.
The complement of 6 is 4.
The complement of 7 is 3.
This includes all 2 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 100.
The complement of 55 is 45.
The complement of 89 is 11.
Finding a complement of a number:
Grade 3 Syllabus for NSO
Plants and Animals
Different parts of a plant and their functions
What is soil
Soil is formed by erosion that is breaking up of rocks , by the action of sun, wind and rain. It forms at the surface of land and is the “skin of the earth.” Soil is capable of supporting plant life and is vital to life on earth.
Soil contains a lot of different things; a few essential ingredients are listed below:
Sediment – Every soil contains some mixture of sediments. The three main sediments are sand, silt, and clay. The type of sediments determines a soil’s type. Ideal soils (for farming) are a mixture of the three.
Organic Matter – Soil contains a lot of partially decomposed organisms which is called organic matter. Microbes in the soil break it down to make important nutrients. Most organic matter comes from plants. This is also called Humus and is dark brown or black in color.
Minerals – There are tons of different minerals in the soil. They’re used by plants for growth. When plants die, their minerals return to the Earth.
Types of soil and properties
Comparative & Superlative with -er/-est
We use -er / -est with the following adjectives:
Two-syllable adjectives with the following endings:
Let’s talk about what division really is — it is repeated subtraction; much the way multiplication is repeated addition.
Let’s say I have the basic problem 16 ÷ 4. I could start with 16 and then subtract 4, subtract another 4, another 4, and another 4 until I run out and reach zero. I would have to do this 4 times. If I had 16 cookies that I wanted to share equally among 4 friends, I could do the “one for you, one for you, one for you, and one for you” process and still end up with 4 cookies for each.
But what about 375 ÷ 50? If I don’t know how to divide by double digit numbers, the repeated subtraction process might actually be a good choice . . . at least showing some number sense to know that 375 divided by 50 means “How many 50’s in 375?” I know if I subtract 50 six times, I still have 75 left. I can subtract another 50 and I have 25 left over. So 375 ÷ 50 = 7 with a remainder of 25.
Dividing using the distributive law
|69 ÷ 3
||60 + 9
||(60 ÷ 3) = 20
(9 ÷ 3) = 3
|20 + 3 = 23
|391 ÷ 3
||390 + 1
|| (390 ÷ 3) = 130
(1 ÷ 3) = cannot be divided
|130 with Remainder 1
Before a child is ready to learn long division, he/she has to know: Continue reading
A look at the grade 2 lessons
Grade 2 Science (NSO): Human Body
Human beings: Parts of the body
Human beings : Sense organs
Our body is made up of different organs and organ systems. There are in all 12 systems in our body
Food Decay and Preservation
Bacteria and fungi are the main groups of decomposer organisms. Food decay is also known as food spoilage.
Bacteria and fungi need Food , Warmth and Moisture to grow.
There are several ways to stop or slow down the decay of foods. This is known as Food Preservation.
Food preservation methods
Bacteria cannot reproduce at low temperatures.
Bacteria and fungi need warmth to grow. In low temperatures they stop growing.
Following is the list of food preserved by freezing;
- Fresh foods
- Cooked foods
Removing water prevents the microorganisms from growing, or digesting the food.
A look at the grade 2 lesson
Grade 2 Science(NSO) : Food
Food can be divided into three types
Energy giving food
Give us energy to work. They contain carbohydrate and fats.
They are found in foods like rice, pasta, cassava, yam etc. when starchy foods are eaten and digested, simple sugars like glucose are obtained. It is this glucose that the body uses for energy.
There are two major types of carbohydrates:
1. Simple carbohydrates (Sugar)
- White sugar you would find in a sugar bowl