Vedic Maths: Base and Complement

Base and Complement are very important in Vedic Mathematics and form the basis of many calculations.

Base:

As explained above we work in a base 10 number system. In order to ease our calculations we can take any number ending with ‘0’ i.e. any multiple of 10 as our base.

COMPLEMENT

The Complement of a number is the difference between that number and the next higher power of 10.

10’s complement:

This includes all 1 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 10.

The complement of 6 is 4.
The complement of 7 is 3.

100’s complement:

This includes all 2 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 100.

The complement of 55 is 45.
The complement of 89 is 11.

Grade 2 Science (NSO) : Rocks and minerals

Rocks

Earth is made up of hard matter called rocks. They come in different shapes, colour and size. Rocks are found under the soil, in rivers and seas. They are solid material made up of one or more minerals.

Rocks can be hard ( granite) or soft (chalk)

Some important rocks :

Granite :

Granite is a light-colored igneous rock with grains large enough to be visible with the unaided eye.

It is the most common igneous rock found on the Earth’s surface

Granite is composed mainly of  quartz and fedspar  with minor amounts of mica and other minerals. This mineral composition usually gives granite a red, pink, gray, or white color with dark mineral grains visible throughout the rock .

Grade 2 Science (NSO) : Good habits and safety rules

Before starting lets take a look at the Grade 1 lessons

Human beings: Good habits

Safety: Safety rules

Safety: Traffic rules

Safety: Activities and worksheets

Safety Rules

Safety rules at home :

• Do not play with match sticks, scissors, switches, plugs , fire, knives etc
• Keep things in proper places afetr using them
• Immediately inform an adult if you get hurt

Grade 2 Science (NSO): Housing and Clothing

Housing and clothing

A quick  look at the Grade 1 lessons

Human Beings:Different rooms in the house

Human Beings : Clothes we wear

A house is a place where we feel safe. It protects us from the sun, rain, wind, wild animals and thieves.

Types of houses

1. Permanent houses

1. These houses cannot be shifted from one place to another
2. People build these houses according to their needs.
3. Huts are made of mud, straw, wood , bamboo and clay and are not very strong (also called kucha house in india)
4. Flats and bungalows are made of bricks , cement, steel and concrete(mixture of cement, sand,small stones and water). These are very strong. (also called pucca house in india)
2. Temporary houses

1. Houses that can be moved  easily from one place to another.
2. These are also called portable houses.
3. They are easy to make and cheap
4. Example
1. Tent : Made of nylon or canvas.
• Used by soldiers and campers.
2. Houseboat : House made on boats that float on water bodies.
• It is made of wood
3. Caravan : A house on wheels is called a caravan

Taming the tables – Tips to introduce multiplication

Some tips and tricks to start multiplication which will help you in  knowing  your times tables. I followed this approach with my daughter (she is in grade 1 rt now) and am very happy with the results. She does not have any apprehensions of which table is asked and does a quick mental maths if she does not know the answer.

Tips to approach the concept of multiplication :

I explained these concepts using lego pieces . You can use anything small and handy.

1. Now that the kids know 2 digit addition the best approach to start multiplication is by asking them to do  repeated addition. Ask them to count the objects in groups of 2 then 3 and so on.
2. Once they are thorough with repeated addition you can ask them to do skip counting.
3. Ask them to divide the total number of objects into equal groups.
4. Arrange the total number of objects in an array of row and column.

Below is a figure to illustrate how multiplication can be introduced to kids.