Gravel 

It is made up of very large grains which do not hold any water between them. They hold a lot of air. Gravel is used to make concrete, for road construction, for mixing with asphalt, as construction fill, and in the production of construction materials like concrete blocks, bricks, and pipes.

Sandy soil

In Sandy soil, there are more percentage of sand particles than in the other soil types.

Properties of Sandy soil

1. It is coarse grained
2. It has low plant nutrient
3. It drains easily
4. Sandy soil easily gets hot and cold
5. gray or brown in color
6. It does not support erosion
7. It is highly acidic
8. It does not support waterlogging
9. Leaching is high

Clayey soil

This type of soil contains more than 40% Clay particles with a mixture of fine sand and silt.

Properties of clayey soil

1. Made of very fine grains which stick together
2. High water holding capacity but holds very little air
3. Low possibility of leaching
4. It is highly stick when wet.
5. Usually light brown in colour .
6. It supports waterlogging.
7. It is usually fertile and good for farming.
8. It is alkaline and has a high proportion of mineral ions.

Loamy soil

This soil is a mixture of sand, clay and silt.

Properties of loamy soil

1. It can hold enough water and air for plant growth
2. It is rich in plant nutrient.
3. It withstands draughts for a fair period of time.
4. It is well aerated.
5. It has high water holding capacity.
6. It is alkaline in nature.
7. It has colours ranging from brown to dark brown or black.
8. It is the best soil for farming

Best crops to grow in Sandy, clayey and loamy soil 

Best crops to grow in Sandy soil

Crops varieties such as vegetables, Cowpea, cotton, groundnut, cassava, melon, beans, watermelon etc can be grown in Sandy soil.

Best crops to grow in clayey soil

Cocoyam, Yam, maize, rice, cucumber, tomato, okro, banana, plantain, orange, cocoa, rubber.

Best crops to grow in loamy soil

Maize, cassava, watermelon, tomato, pepper, onions, carrot, yam, potatoes, pineapple, pawpaw, melon.

Layers of Soil

Topsoil – A layer with slightly less organic matter and more sediment. Its saturated with plant roots, looking for nutrients.

Subsoil – A layer which collects (or leaches) materials from the topsoil. It’s a thieving layer! It is harder than the top soil.

Bedrock – The beginning of the Earth’s crust. It is solid rock.