Rule/Sutra : By the deficiency
Here we will learn the Vedic sutra ‘By the deficiency’ which means how less or more the number is from the base number. The base number as explained earlier is 10 or a multiple of 10.
7 is deficient by 3 from 10
8 is deficient by 2 from 10
29 is deficient by 1 from 30
97 is deficient by 3 from 100
Base and Complement are very important in Vedic Mathematics and form the basis of many calculations.
As explained above we work in a base 10 number system. In order to ease our calculations we can take any number ending with ‘0’ i.e. any multiple of 10 as our base.
The Complement of a number is the difference between that number and the next higher power of 10.
This includes all 1 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 10.
The complement of 6 is 4.
The complement of 7 is 3.
This includes all 2 digit numbers. It is the number that should be added to make it 100.
The complement of 55 is 45.
The complement of 89 is 11.
Finding a complement of a number:
Let’s start from the basics. In arithmetic there are nine numbers and a 0. All the numbers are made using these. We need to understand the Place value of these numbers.
We count numbers in groups of 10. Each place has a value of 10 times the place to its right.
Ten Units make a 10
Ten Tens make a 100
Ten Hundreds make a 1000 and so on…
In any number its value depends on its position/place.
In the number 2583: Value of 2 is 2000; 5 is 500; 8 is 80 and 3 is 3.
10 s: Group of 10 units/ones.
100s: Group of 10 tens
1000s: Group of 10 hundreds
10000: Group of 10 thousands
Ten Point Circle
If you look at the circle closely you will notice that the opposite numbers add to 10 (5 will add to itself and make 10)
Our number system is based on the number 10 and proceeds in cycles of 10 e.g. 10, 20, 30 and so on. The reason behind this is that compared to the other numbers; ‘10’ is a very easy number to handle.
Grade 3 Syllabus for NSO
Plants and Animals
Different parts of a plant and their functions
What is soil
Soil is formed by erosion that is breaking up of rocks , by the action of sun, wind and rain. It forms at the surface of land and is the “skin of the earth.” Soil is capable of supporting plant life and is vital to life on earth.
Soil contains a lot of different things; a few essential ingredients are listed below:
Sediment – Every soil contains some mixture of sediments. The three main sediments are sand, silt, and clay. The type of sediments determines a soil’s type. Ideal soils (for farming) are a mixture of the three.
Organic Matter – Soil contains a lot of partially decomposed organisms which is called organic matter. Microbes in the soil break it down to make important nutrients. Most organic matter comes from plants. This is also called Humus and is dark brown or black in color.
Minerals – There are tons of different minerals in the soil. They’re used by plants for growth. When plants die, their minerals return to the Earth.
Types of soil and properties